Your shopping cart is empty!
Micronutrients (include vitamins and minerals) are essential for normal function, growth and development. Minerals have important effects on the health of the mother and foetus. But biological mechanisms of minerals are not completely understood.
Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anaemia, hypertension, obstetric complications and even maternal death and in foetus lead to a fail in growth and development. Mineral deficiency during pregnancy, particularly exist in developing countries. During pregnancy due to the increased demands caused by physiological changes, deficiency is exaggerated and as a result its complications occur. Thus, ensuring to receive enough macronutrients and micronutrients before and during pregnancy, is important.
The recommended daily intake of minerals
for adults and pregnant and lactating women
|29 mcg/day (AI)
30 mcg/day (AI)
|44 mcg/day (AI)
45 mcg/day (AI)
|Copper||14-50 years||900 mcg/day||1 mg/day||1.3 mg/day|
|Fluoride||14-50 years||3-4 mg/day||3 mg/day (AI)||3 mg/day (AI)|
|Iodine||14-50 years||150 mcg/day||220 mcg/day||290 mcg/day|
|Iron||14-50 years||8-18 mg/day||27 mg/day||9 mg/day|
|Manganese||14-50 years||1.8-2.3 mg/day||2 mg/day (AI)||2.6 mg/day (AI)|
|Molybdenum||14-50 years||45 mcg/day||50 mcg/day||50 mcg/day|
|Potassium||14-50 years||At least 4.700 mg/day||4.700 mg/day (AI) At least 4.700 mg/day||5.100 mg/day (AI)|
|Selenium||14-50 years||55 mcg/day||60 mcg/day||70 mcg/day|
|Sodium||14-50 years||1500-2300 mg/day||1500 mg/day (AI)||1500 mg/day (AI)|
* 1000 milligrams (mg) is a unit of mass equal to 1 gram and 1000 micrograms (mcg) is equal to 1 milligram (mg)
During pregnancy, increased metabolic needs lead to increased need for macro- and micronutrients [1,3,14]. Daily intake of micronutrients is essential to minimize potential pregnancy-associated risks and enhance foetal development outcomes .
Micronutrients play various important roles in pregnancy, and lack of each one causes irreversible complications in both the mother and foetus . Some of these complications include anaemia, aggravate malnutrition, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, labour complications and even maternal death, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and foetal growth restriction, and even diabetes and cardiovascular diseases [1,14].
During pregnancy, most women usually have undesirable nutrition . Therefore, awareness-raising in the area of healthy diets and lifestyles should be made both prior to and during pregnancy [14,40].
The immune resistance in early pregnancy is relatively poor and mothers are vulnerable to illness. Immune factors such as IgG in colostrum not only enhance the immunity of the mother to reduce external pathogenic invasion and to prevent illness such as flu, pneumonia or other diseases. It can also improve the immunity of the baby through the passing of IgG via the placenta thus protecting the baby in the womb.
Prebiotics are very Important! It helps feed the good bacteria in the intestine, promote the increase of friendly bacteria in the gut, help with various digestive problems and even boost your immune system. Prebiotic foods have also been shown to improve metabolic health and even help prevent certain diseases. FOS are often used in baby formula to help feed the beneficial bacteria that the intestines need.
Isolated Soy Protein refers to the protein that is found in soybeans that is often used to replace animal proteins in an individual's diet. It is the only vegetable food that contains all eight essential amino acids and good source of fibre, iron, calcium, zinc, and B vitamins including folate (Vitamin B7) which is essential for fetal development.
Seaweed contains a wide range of vitamins and minerals, including iodine, iron, calcium and contain high amounts of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is important for maintaining the health of your nervous system, but it's also believed that when combined with folic acid during pregnancy, B12 supplements can help to prevent spina bifida and other spinal and central nervous system birth defects in your baby too.
Fructose is a type of FRUIT SUGAR. Is a natural sugar present in fruit and honey. Unlike glucose, fructose causes a low rise in blood sugar levels. Therefore, some health professionals recommend fructose as a “safe” sweetener for people with type 2 diabetes and some pregnant mothers experiencing Gestational diabetes.
Vanillin is a well-known flavoring and is added to foods to reduce the amount of sugar needed for sweetening. Vanillin acts as an antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory providing many health benefits. It boosts immunity, protects body from carcinogen attacks, repair cell damage and prevent various diseases.
Vanillin is effective in calming stomach, reducing discomfort and vomiting. It has been used for treating wounds (stretch marks during pregnancy) since ancient times and found to have soothing effects on inflammation.
Psyllium Husk is a Fibre supplement which is generally considered to be safe during pregnancy. Irregular or painful bowel movements, also called constipation, are a common part of the pregnancy experience. In fact, approximately 50% of women develop constipation at some point during pregnancy, according to the American Pregnancy Association. Adding psyllium husk, a form of soluble fiber, to your daily diet might help alleviate stomach discomfort caused by constipation .
Soy Lecithin helps to Lower Cholesterol, Improved Body Immunity, Improved Digestion, Brain Development and memory. Choline is an essential nutrient found in Soy Lecithin for women; especially during pregnancy and lactation. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant. Adequate intake of dietary choline may be important for optimal fetal outcome (birth defects, brain development) and for maternal liver and placental function.
Aloe vera is rich in vitamins and minerals that are necessary for both the mother and the baby. It soothes the gut and mitigates morning sickness during early pregnancy. Aloe vera helps dilate the blood capillaries to promote healthy blood circulation, which is essential to support the growth of the mother and fetus. It also soothes inflamed tissues in the gastrointestinal tract for an easy bowel movement.
Garcinia Cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation that had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. It is therefore expected that Garcinia Cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of accumulation of visceral fat.
* Anti- obesity
Why Visceral Fat is bad and dangerous for pregnancy?
Study shows both visceral, total abdominal fat were predictors of gestational diabetes. Women who have high levels of abdominal fat during their first trimester of pregnancy have a higher risk of developing diabetes later in their pregnancy, according to a new study.
According to a study published in 2018, researchers demonstrated that L-carnitine supplementation improves human embryo quality and achieves better pregnancy outcomes.
Studies also indicated that restoring plasma levels of carnitine via supplementation before and during pregnancy helps prevent the development of gestational diabetes, especially in overweight women, and could protect children from a certain type of autism.
Taking a multi strain probiotics is a step in the right direction to support the immunity of both mom and baby. Many studies have found adding probiotics to the mother’s supplement regimen before conception has even greater benefits for the baby. Studies show mothers who increase their probiotic intake during pregnancy can reduce their child's risk of allergies by as much as 50 percent and specifically in eczema, asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mom benefits by decreasing her risk of colds and respiratory infection.
Some other great reasons to take probiotics during pregnancy such as : Reduce risk for preeclampsia ; a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology observed that women who consumed food high in probiotics during the first half of their pregnancy had a reduced risk for developing preeclampsia which is the number one reason for maternal death in the United States.
Helps lose postpartum weight faster ; Research in the British Journal of Nutrition has found that women supplementing with probiotics during the first trimester and until they stopped breastfeeding (up to 6 months) were associated with less central obesity one year after giving birth. (Central obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more).
Helps digestion and nutrient absorption ; Probiotics help to break down proteins, carbs and fats and converts the fiber into healthy fatty acids that nourish the cells that lines the intestinal wall. This can help reduce gas, bloating, heartburn and constipation. When the intestines are sealed (aka leaky gut syndrome) the better our bodies absorb the nutrients from the foods we consume. The more nourishment moms get, the more the baby gets, too. Probiotics also help the intestines make short-chain fatty acids, which contribute to the overall health of the body.
Help reduce the risk for postpartum depression ; Medscape Medical News reported the connection between the gut and brain is very real. Preliminary research is finding the importance that taking probiotics can alter the neurotransmitters in the gut, boosting the ability to deal and cope with anxiety and depression.
Spirulina improves the haemoglobin levels of the body and prevents anemia and fatigue during pregnancy. The proteins can offer additional nourishment to the fetus and augment its growth while helping pregnant women strengthen their bones.
In 2012, a study was published that demonstrated protective effects that spirulina’s antioxidants had on a certain type of neural tube defect that can occur in pregnant humans.
Another study done in sub-Saharan African women who were pregnant saw an improvement in anemia status when they consumed spirulina in the third trimester of their pregnancies. They actually found that taking spirulina was more effective than taking an iron and folic acid supplement.
Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like supplement found in every cell of the body. CoQ10 is a part of the electron transport chain which is responsible for generating energy in our cells. Studies shows that CoQ10 help on women fertility, help with reduce diabetes by improve insulin sensitivity and regulate blood sugar levels, reduce oxidative stress that causes cell damage and affect their function and promote cellular energy production.
Omega-3 fatty acids have positive effects on the pregnancy itself. Increased intake of EPA and DHA has been shown to prevent pre-term labor and delivery, lower the risk of preeclampsia, and may increase birth weight. Omega-3 deficiency also decreases the risk of postpartum depression.
Along with omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function, and normal growth and development. As a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), omega-6s help stimulate skin and hair growth, maintain bone health, regulate metabolism, and maintain the reproductive system
Cocoa contains flavanols – a type of flavonoid – that have been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular problems and lower cholesterol. It also contains Antioxidants which help eliminate free radicals in our body. Getting enough antioxidants may be an important part of prenatal care. Cocoa also contains minerals including magnesium, copper, and iron. Some moms also find boosting their magnesium stores before pregnancy (or during) may be a good morning sickness remedy.
Regular moderate consumption of cocoa during pregnancy can decrease risk for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, according to a 2010 study. It can also reduced inflammation, better blood flow, lower blood pressure and improved cholesterol and blood sugar levels and could help in the improvement of placental function.
Cocoa also contains phenethylamine, which triggers the release of endorphins, mimicking the way we feel when we’re in love thus improving mood.
Chocolate has anti-inflammatory properties which can reduce the risk of stroke!
One study on chocolate consumption and stress levels in pregnant women found that more frequent intake of chocolate was associated with reduced stress and improved mood in babies.
A new study recently presented at the 2016 Pregnancy Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine in Atlanta concluded that eating 30g of Chocolate every day during pregnancy may benefit fetal growth and development.
Another Swedish study shows that Mom’s who regularly consume chocolate during pregnancy gave higher happiness scores to their 6 months old than mamas who didn’t consume chocolate regularly.
 Blumfield M, Hure A, Macdonald-Wicks L, Smith R, Collins C. A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries. Nutr Rev. 2013;71:118–32.
 King J. Physiology of pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. Am J Clin Nut. 2000;71:1218–25.
 Berti C, Biesalski HK, Gärtner R, Lapillonne A, Pietrzik K, Poston L, et al. Micronutrients in pregnancy:Current knowledge and unresolved questions. Clinical Nutrition. 2011;30(2011):689–701.
 Cetin I, Berti C, Calabrese S. Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:80–95.  Dorosti Ak, A. Public Health Book. Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. 2004;11
 Berti C, Decsi T, Dykes F, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Massari MSS. Critical issues in setting micronutrient recommendations for pregnant women:an insight. Matern Child Nutr. 2010;6:5–22.
 Roberts JM, Balk JL, Bodnar LM, Belizán JM, Bergel E, Martinez A. Nutrient involvement in preeclampsia. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133(5):1684S–92S.
 Haider B, Bhutta Z. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review) The Cochrane Library. 2012;2012(11):1–119.
 Smolin LB, Grosvenor GB. Heathy eating:a guide to nutrition. 2ed. New York: Chelsea House; 2011. pp. 1–225.
 Fanaei H, Keshtgar S, Bahmanpour S, Ghannadi A, Kazeroni M. Beneficial effects of alpha-tocopherol against intracellular calcium overload in human sperm. Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif) 2011;18(10):978–82.
 Keshtgar S, Fanaei H, Bahmanpour S, Azad F, Ghannadi A, Kazeroni M. In vitro effects of alpha-tocopherol on teratozoospermic semen samples. Andrologia. 2012;44(Suppl 1):721–27.
 Fong yii M. the role of micronutrients in pregnancy. reprinted from australian Family physician. 2009;38:980–84.  Mahan lk, Escott-Stump s. Krause's Food & Nutrition THERAPY. Vol. 12. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders; 2008.
 DL K. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. Diet, pregnancy, and lactation.
 Salam R, Das J, Bhutta Z. Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation in Low-to-Middle-Income Developing Country Settings:Impact on Pregnancy Outcomes. Ann Nutr Metab. 2014;65:4–12.
 Hofmeyr G, Lawrie T, Atallah A, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;2011(8):CD001059.
 Ross C, Caballero B, Cousins R, Tucker K, Ziegler T. Modern nutrition in health and diseas. :e2014.
 Spencer B, Vanderlelie J, Perkins A. Essentiality of trace element micronutrition in human pregnancy:a systematic review. J Preg Child Health. 2015;2(157):1–7.
 Jain S, Sharma P, Kulshreshtha S, Mohan G, Singh S. The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;133:162–70.
 Eum J, Cheong H, Ha E, Ha M, Kim Y, Hong YC, et al. Maternal blood manganese level and birth weight:a MOCEH birth cohort study. Environ Health. 2014;13:31.
 Trumbo P, Yates AA, Schlicker S, Poos M. Dietary reference intakes:vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2001;101(3):294–301.
 Allen L. Anaemia and iron deficiency:effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1280–84.
 Food and Nutrition Board IoM. iron Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Vol. 2001. Washington, D.C: National Academy; 2001. pp. 290–93.
 Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Needs During Pregnancy and Lactation oregon state university 2017. Available from: Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University.html.
 Milman N. Iron and pregnancy-a delicate balance. Ann Hematol. 2006;85:559–65.
 Osendarp SJM, Murray-Kolb LE, Black MM. Case study on iron in mental development – in memory of John Beard (1947–2009) Nutrition reviews. 2010;68(Suppl 1):48–52.
 Allen L. Biological mechanisms that might underlie iron's effects on fetal growth and preterm birth. J Nutr. 2001;131:581–89.
 International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) Brown K, Rivera J, Bhutta Z, Gibson R, et al. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull. 2004;25:99–203.
 King J. Zinc:an essential but elusive nutrient. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:679–84.
 Caulfield L, Zavaleta N, Shankar A, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:499–508.
 Mistry H, Williams P. The importance of antioxidant micronutrients in pregnancy. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;2011:841749.
 Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Ramezanzadeh F, Dahaghin M, Fakhriazad E, Seyedaghamiri Z, et al. Blood manganese concentrations and intrauterine growth restriction. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;25:219–23.
 Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;24(1):29–38.
 Smyth P. Dietary iodine intake in pregnancy. Ir Med J. 2006;99:103.
 Travers C, Guttikonda K, Norton C, Lewis P, Mollart L, Wiley V, et al. Iodine status in pregnant women and their newborns:are our babies at risk of iodine deficiency? Med J Aust. 2006;184:617–20.
 Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev. 2009;30(4):376–408.
 Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, Dunn JT, Franklyn JA, Hollowell JG, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada:recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2006;16(10):949–51.
 Gunton J, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(1):99–104.
 Woods S, Ghodsi V, Engel A, Miller J, James S. Serum chromium and gestational diabetes. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(2):153–57.
 Khayat S, Kheirkhah M, Behboodi Moghadam Z, Fanaei H, Kasaeian A, Javadimehr M. Effect of treatment with ginger on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms. ISRN obstetrics and gynecology. 2014;2014:792708.